References for the link between Muscle Strength and Mortality

In year order

Rantanen, T., Harris, T., Leveille, S. G., Visser, M., Foley, D., Masaki, K., & Guralnik, J. M. (2000). Muscle strength and body mass index as long-term predictors of mortality in initially healthy men. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 55(3), M168-73. Retrieved from

Warburton, D. E., Gledhill, N., & Quinney, A. (2001). Musculoskeletal fitness and health. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology = Revue Canadienne de Physiologie Appliquee, 26(2), 217–37. Retrieved from

Katzmarzyk, P. T., & Craig, C. L. (2002). Musculoskeletal fitness and risk of mortality. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(5), 740–4. Retrieved from

Rantanen, T., Volpato, S., Ferrucci, L., Heikkinen, E., Fried, L. P., & Guralnik, J. M. (2003). Handgrip strength and cause-specific and total mortality in older disabled women: exploring the mechanism. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51(5), 636–41. Retrieved from

FitzGerald Carolyn E Barlow James B Kampert James R Morrow Jr Allen W Jackson, S. J. (2004). Muscular Fitness and All-Cause Mortality: Prospective Observations. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 1(11), 7–18. Retrieved from

Willardson, J. M., & Tudor-Locke, C. (2005). Survival of the Strongest: A Brief Review Examining the Association Between Muscular Fitness and Mortality. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 27(3), 80–85.[0080:SOTSAB]2.0.CO;2

Larson, E. B., Wang, L., Bowen, J. D., McCormick, W. C., Teri, L., Crane, P., & Kukull, W. (2006). Exercise is associated with reduced risk for incident dementia among persons 65 years of age and older. Annals of Internal Medicine, 144(2), 73–81.

Gale, C. R., Martyn, C. N., Cooper, C., & Sayer, A. A. (2007). Grip strength, body composition, and mortality. International Journal of Epidemiology, 36(1), 228–235.

Ali, N. A., O’Brien, J. M., Hoffmann, S. P., Phillips, G., Garland, A., Finley, J. C. W., … Marsh, C. B. (2008). Acquired Weakness, Handgrip Strength, and Mortality in Critically Ill Patients. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 178(3), 261–268.

Bohannon, R. W. (2008). Hand-grip dynamometry predicts future outcomes in aging adults. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy (2001), 31(1), 3–10. Retrieved from

Ruiz, J. R., Sui, X., Lobelo, F., Morrow, J. R., Jackson, A. W., Sjöström, M., & Blair, S. N. (2008). Association between muscular strength and mortality in men: prospective cohort study. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 337, a439.

Abellan van Kan, G., Rolland, Y., Andrieu, S., Bauer, J., Beauchet, O., Bonnefoy, M., … Vellas, B. (2009). Gait speed at usual pace as a predictor of adverse outcomes in community-dwelling older people an International Academy on Nutrition and Aging (IANA) Task Force. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 13(10), 881–9. Retrieved from

Ruiz, J. R., Sui, X., Lobelo, F., Lee, D. -c. D. C., Morrow, J. R., Jackson, A. W., … Blair, S. N. (2009). Muscular strength and adiposity as predictors of adulthood cancer mortality in men. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, 18(5), 1468–1476.

Han, S. S., Kim, K. W., Kim, K.-I., Na, K. Y., Chae, D.-W., Kim, S., & Chin, H. J. (2010). Lean Mass Index: A Better Predictor of Mortality than Body Mass Index in Elderly Asians. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 58(2), 312–317.

Phillips, A. C., Der, G., & Carroll, D. (2010). Self-reported health, self-reported fitness, and all-cause mortality: prospective cohort study. British Journal of Health Psychology, 15(Pt 2), 337–46.

Fahs, C. A., Heffernan, K. S., Ranadive, S., Jae, S. Y., & Fernhall, B. (2010). Muscular strength is inversely associated with aortic stiffness in young men. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 42(9), 1619–1624.

Sundermann, S., Dademasch, A., Rastan, A., Praetorius, J., Rodriguez, H., Walther, T., … Falk, V. (2011). One-year follow-up of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery assessed with the Comprehensive Assessment of Frailty test and its simplified form. Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery, 13(2), 119–123.

Artero, E. G., Lee, D., Ruiz, J. R., Sui, X., Ortega, F. B., Church, T. S., … Blair, S. N. (2011). A prospective study of muscular strength and all-cause mortality in men with hypertension. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 57(18), 1831–1837.

Artero, E. G., Lee, D., Lavie, C. J., España-Romero, V., Sui, X., Church, T. S., & Blair, S. N. (2012). Effects of muscular strength on cardiovascular risk factors and prognosis. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention, 32(6), 351–8.

Reid, K. F., & Fielding, R. A. (2012). Skeletal muscle power: a critical determinant of physical functioning in older adults. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 40(1), 4–12.

Masunari, N., Fujiwara, S., Kasagi, F., Takahashi, I., Yamada, M., & Nakamura, T. (2012). Height loss starting in middle age predicts increased mortality in the elderly. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : The Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, 27(1), 138–45.

Dodds, R. M., Syddall, H. E., Cooper, R., Benzeval, M., Deary, I. J., Dennison, E. M., … Sayer, A. A. (2014). Grip strength across the life course: Normative data from twelve British studies. PLoS ONE, 9(12).

Chuang, S.-Y., Chang, H.-Y., Lee, M.-S., Chia-Yu Chen, R., & Pan, W.-H. (2014). Skeletal muscle mass and risk of death in an elderly population. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 24(7), 784–791.

Srikanthan, P., & Karlamangla, A. S. (2014). Muscle Mass Index As a Predictor of Longevity in Older Adults. The American Journal of Medicine, 127(6), 547–553.

Hermans, G., Van Mechelen, H., Clerckx, B., Vanhullebusch, T., Mesotten, D., Wilmer, A., … Van den Berghe, G. (2014). Acute Outcomes and 1-Year Mortality of Intensive Care Unit–acquired Weakness. A Cohort Study and Propensity-matched Analysis. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 190(4), 410–420.

Kraschnewski, J., Sciamanna, C., Poger, J., Rovniak, L., Lehman, E., Cooper, A., … E.B., L. (2014). Is strength training associated with mortality benefits? A 15 year cohort study of US older adults. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 87, 121–127.

Leong, D. P., Teo, K. K., Rangarajan, S., Lopez-Jaramillo, P., Avezum, A., Orlandini, A., … Yusuf, S. (2015). Prognostic value of grip strength: Findings from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. The Lancet, 386(9990).

Bohannon, R. W. (2015). Muscle strength: clinical and prognostic value of hand-grip dynamometry. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 18(5), 465–70.

Dodds, R., & Sayer, A. A. (2015). Sarcopenia and frailty: new challenges for clinical practice. Clinical Medicine, 15(Suppl_6), s88–s91.

Volaklis, K. A., Halle, M., & Meisinger, C. (2015). Muscular strength as a strong predictor of mortality: A narrative review. European Journal of Internal Medicine.

Celis-Morales, C. A., Lyall, D. M., Anderson, J., Iliodromiti, S., Fan, Y., Ntuk, U. E., … Gill, J. M. R. (2016). The association between physical activity and risk of mortality is modulated by grip strength and cardiorespiratory fitness: evidence from 498 135 UK-Biobank participants. European Heart Journal, ehw249.

Kraschnewski, J. L., Sciamanna, C. N., Poger, J. M., Rovniak, L. S., Lehman, E. B., Cooper, A. B., … Ciccolo, J. T. (2016). Is strength training associated with mortality benefits? A 15year cohort study of US older adults. Preventive Medicine, 87, 121–127.

Brooks, C., Siegler, J. C., & Marshall, P. W. M. (2016). Relative abdominal adiposity is associated with chronic low back pain: a preliminary explorative study. BMC Public Health, 16, 700.

Farhan, H., Moreno-Duarte, I., Latronico, N., Zafonte, R., & Eikermann, M. (2016). Acquired Muscle Weakness in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit: Nosology, Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Prevention. Anesthesiology, 124(1).

Rowe, R., Iqbal, J., Murali-Krishnan, R., Sultan, A., Orme, R., Briffa, N., … Gunn, J. (n.d.). Role of frailty assessment in patients undergoing cardiac interventions.

Gaikwad, N. R., Gupta, S. J., Samarth, A. R., & Sankalecha, T. H. (n.d.). Handgrip dynamometry: a surrogate marker of malnutrition to predict the prognosis in alcoholic liver disease. Annals of Gastroenterology : Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology, 29(4), 509–514.

Simon King

Simon King

Simon Billings